Articles & Databases
Databases by Title
NOTE: These resources are restricted to UW-W students, faculty & staff unless otherwise noted. Please refer to the Off-Campus Users Guide for information about using Library resources remotely.
This site is a gateway to all Nature-titled journals and sites for all levels of visitors. It provides full text services to the weekly printed edition of Nature, and an extensive range of content and other services are available.
Naxos Music Library
Naxos Music Library is the world's largest online classical music library. It offers streaming access to more than 46,000 CDs with more than 653,000 tracks, standard and rare repertoire.
NCJRS Abstracts Database
The National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts Database contains summaries of more than 190,000 publications on criminal justice, including Federal, state, and local government reports, books, research reports, journal articles, and unpublished research. Subject areas include corrections, courts, drugs and crime, law enforcement, juvenile justice, crime statistics, and victims of crime. The time period covered is from the early 1970's to the present.
NFPA Codes Online
Restricted to 10 users at same time
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), based in Quincy, Massachusetts, is an international, nonprofit membership organization. Its mission is to reduce the worldwide burden of fire and other hazards on the quality of life. The NFPA develops, publishes, and disseminates timely consensus codes and standards intended to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks.
NetLibrary (changed to eBook Collection (EBSCOhost)
Hundreds of books in electronic format covering Social Sciences, Humanities and Sciences. Search for specific titles, or subject areas, and browse or "check out" an e-text.
Newspaper Source Plus (EBSCOhost)
Newspaper Source Plus provides selected full text for over 1520 regional U.S. newspapers, international newspapers, newswires, newspaper columns and other sources, providing more than 28 million full-text articles. In addition, the database features more than 601,300 television and radio news transcripts, videos & podcasts.. This database is updated daily.
NewsVault delivers the definitve cross-searching experience for exploring your library's collection of Gale Historical newspapers, with the power to search over 10 million digitized facsimile pages.
New York Times Book Review
FREE WITH REGISTRATION
Includes the complete Sunday Book Review, daily book related news and reviews, a searchable archive of over 50,000 New York Times Book Reviews, bestseller lists, and more.
New York Times Historical Newspapers (1851-2007) (Proquest)
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times is a unique full-image archive that brings you the entire historical run of The New York Times. It offers complete coverage from 1851-2007. The database delivers every page of every issue from cover to cover, with full-page and article images in downloadable PDF. And the database just keeps growing, with a new year's content added annually.
Nineteenth Century Collections Online
The Nineteenth Century Collections online is a multi-year global digitization and publishing program focusing on primary source collections of the nineteenth century. This collection contains the Asia and the West: Diplomacy and Cultural Exchange, British Politics and Society, British Theatre, Music, and Literature: High and Popular Culture and European Literature, 1790-1840: The Corvey Collection Archives. Nineteenth Century Collections online can also be searched using Artemis Primary Sources.
Nineteenth Century U.S. Newspapers
With digital facsimile images of both full pages and clipped articles for hundreds of 19th century U.S. newspapers and advanced searching capabilities, researchers will be able to research history in ways previously unavailable. The Nineteenth Century U.S. Newspapers can also be searched using Artemis Primary Sources.
North American Immigrant Letters and Diaries and Oral Histories: 1800-1850
This collection includes 71 authors and approximately 10,000 pages of information which provides a personal view of what it meant to immigrate to America and Canada between 1800 and 1950. It is composeded of letters and diaries, oral histories, interviews and other personal narratives.
North American Women's Letters and Diaries: Colonial to 1950
This collection includes one of the most comprehensive bibliographies of women's diaries and letters yet published. It lists over 2,000 published and unpublished items from a variety of sources, including online resources and microform. Drawn from more than 1,000 sources, including journal articles, pamphlets, newsletters, monographs, and conference proceedings, much of the material is in copyright. Represented are all age groups and life stages, all ethnicities, many geographical regions, the famous and the not so famous.
NoveList is a Reader Advisory database of over 155,000 fiction titles for readers of all ages.
NoveList K-8 (EBSCOhost)
NoveList K-8 contains enhanced subject access for over 60,000 fiction titles aimed at the K-8 population. Full-text reviews from sources like School Library Journal and Booklist are available for many titles
OECD iLibrary is the online library of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) featuring its books, papers and statistics and is the gateway to analysis and data. Publications can be accessed using the list of categories or they can be found by using a keyword search. An "advanced" search feature allows for searching of journals only.
Access to online journals via Ovid. Includes Ear & Hearing, Infants & Young Children, Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, Journal of the American Audiology Society, Topics in Language Disorders (Years covered varies per title).
Oxford Companion to Music
Embracing the world of music in all its variety - including jazz, popular music, and dance - the Companion offers a concentrated focus on the Western classic tradition, from the Middle Ages to the present day. The more than 8,000 articles cover a range of subjects including composers, performers, conductors, individual works, instruments and notation, forms and genres.
Oxford Dictionary of Music
Containing 5,000 entries on composers, conductors, performers, directors, critics, producers and designers of international repute, writers and scholars.
Oxford English Dictionary
Contains the complete text of the OED's twenty-volume Second Edition and three-volume Additions Series draft material from the current OED project, representing the latest progress towards a completely revised and updated Third Edition.
Oxford Music Online
Oxford Music Online is the gateway that offers the ability to access and cross-search the resources of Oxford's music reference in one location. This subscription includes access to The Oxford Dictionary of Music, Grove Music Online and The Oxford Companion to Music.
Oxford Reference Online: Premium
Restricted to 1 user at a time
The Premium Collection enhances the coverage of the Oxford Reference Online Core Collection. It contains over100 dictionary, language reference, and subject reference works published by Oxford University Press. The collection also includes over 50,000 in-depth scholarly articles from titles in the acclaimed Oxford Companions series and all 20,000 quotations from the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. It is a fully-indexed, cross-searchable database of these books, giving wide access to a comprehensive information resource.
Philosopher's Index (EBSCOhost)
Restricted to 4 users at a time
Philosopher's Index is a current and comprehensive bibliographic database covering scholarly research in all major fields of philosophy. The Philosopher's Index, produced by the Philosophers Information Center, hosts a thorough index of journal literature on the subject, features author-written abstracts covering scholarly research published in journals and books, including contributions to anthologies and book reviews. The index contains research published since 1940 including nearly 570 journals.
PILOTS Database (Proquest)
Bibliographic database covering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental-health sequelae of traumatic events from 1871 to current date.
Political Science Complete (EBSCOhost)
Political Science Complete provides full text for over 400 publications. PSC features more than 165 full-text reference books and monographs and over 27,000 full text conference papers, including those of the International Political Science Association.
Polling the Nations
Restricted to 4 users at a time
Compiled from more than 12,000 surveys conducted since 1986 in the United States and 70 other countries, the 300,000 questions and responses in Polling the Nations are the most comprehensive collection of polling data anywhere. Examples of some of the 3500 topics include AIDS, the death penalty, marriage, racism, and unemployment.
Primary Search (EBSCOhost)
Primary Search Plus is designed specifically for elementary school libraries and public library children's rooms. Updated monthly, this database provides the Full Text of over 40 magazines for young readers and abstracts and indexing for over 120 magazines. With 109 full text pamphlets, this database provides wonderful opportunities for children to research information quickly and easily, and to acquire searching skills at an early age. It also includes three Funk & Wagnalls publications, the New World Encyclopedia, the World Almanac for Kids and the World Almanac of the USA.
ProceedingsFirst (First Search: 1993- )
Citations of every congress, symposium, conference, exposition, workshop and meeting received at The British Library. LIMITED SEARCHING: The Library is charged per search for this database. Please contact B. Bren (email@example.com or 262-472-5521) before beginning large research projects requiring many searches.
Professional Development Collection (EBSCOhost)
Professional Development Collection, designed for professional educators, provides a highly specialized collection of over 550 full text journals, including more than 350 peer-reviewed titles. In addition to full text, indexing and abstracts are provided for more than 800 journals. The majority of full text titles included in the database are available in native (searchable) PDF, or scanned-in-color. Full text information dates as far back as 1965.
Provides access to the full text of over 120 scholarly journals in the humanities, social sciences, and mathematics.
Access to the ProQuest platform allows searching of 15 Proquest databases.
ProQuest Congressional Publications
ProQuest Congressional offers access to congressional publications on a variety of topics addressed by Congress including published congressional committee hearings.
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Chicago Tribune (1849-1988) (Proquest)
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Chicago Tribune offers full page and article images with searchable full text back to the first issue.
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2008)
ProQuest Historical Newspapers™ – The New York Times is a unique full-image archive that brings you the entire historical run of The New York Times. It offers complete coverage from 1851-2007. The database delivers every page of every issue from cover to cover, with full-page and article images in downloadable PDF. And the database just keeps growing, with a new year's content added annually.
ProQuest Legislative Insight
ProQuest Legislative Insight is a Federal legislative history service that features thoroughly researched compilations of digital full text publications created by Congress during the process leading up to the enactment of U.S. Public Laws.
ProQuest Newsstand offers access to the full text of over 1300 newspapers, news websites and blogs from leading publishers throughout the world. It includes backfile for most newspapers, providing access to articles, columns, editorials, obituaries and features published in each paper.
Provides full text articles on current issues in psychology from respected sources, spanning from 1988 to the present. PsycARTICLES includes more than 25,000 full-text articles from 42 journals published by American Psychological Association and allied organizations. All journals included in this database are indexed in PsycINFO.
PsycINFO contains citations and summaries of journal articles, book chapters, and books in psychology, as well as psychological aspects of related disciplines, such as medicine, psychiatry, nursing, sociology, education, pharmacology, physiology, linguistics, anthropology, business, and law. Includes PsycLit database.
PubMed is a service of the National Library of Medicine, and includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. PubMed contains access to bibliographic information that includes MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, out-of-scope citations (e.g., articles on plate tectonics or astrophysics) from certain MEDLINE journals, primarily general science and chemistry journals, for which the life sciences articles are indexed for MEDLINE, citations that precede the date that a journal was selected for MEDLINE indexing, as well as some additional life science journals that submit full text to PubMedCentral and receive a qualitative review by NLM.
PubMedCentral is a repository for life sciences journals, sponsored by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Readers' Guide Retrospective (EBSCOhost)
Contains comprehensive indexing and abstracting of the most popular general interest periodicals published in the United States and reflects the history of 20th century America. The database covers the years from 1890-1982.
Reaxys is a web-based search and retrieval system for chemical compounds, bibliographic data and chemical reactions. It includes data from the Beilstein database, Gmelin database and the Patent Chemistry database. To learn more about how to use Reaxys, please visit http://www.info.reaxys.com/training-center to access the training center to view/download instructional materials.
Red Book Online
Enhanced online version of the print Red Book, developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Infectious Diseases. Red Book is a valued resource for pediatric clinical medicine and provides guidance on manifestations, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of more than 200 common childhood conditions.
Reference Universe searches the complete indexes of reference titles. Use Reference Universe to find articles to begin your research and build a bibliography.
ReferenceUSA offers searchable database modules containing detailed information on more than 20 million businesses, 222 million consumers, U.S. new businesses, and U.S. new homeowners and movers.
Regional Business News (EBSCOhost)
This database provides comprehensive full text coverage for regional business publications. Regional Business News incorporates coverage of 75 business journals, newspapers and newswires from all metropolitan and rural areas within the United States. This database is updated on a daily basis.
RIA Checkpoint provides access to tax research materials, such as cases, codes and regulations, both on a state and national level.
RILM Abstracts of Music Literature (EBSCOhost)
RILM Abstracts of Music, contains records in over 200 languages; entries include original-language titles, title translations in English, full bibliographic information, and abstracts in English, as well as author, journal, and in-depth subject indexes. The majority of citations include abstracts. Over 500 scholarly journals are represented. Articles, books, bibliographies, catalogues, conference proceedings, discographies, dissertations, ethnographic recordings, Festschriften, films, iconographies, and videos are all covered by RILM. Concert reviews, recording notes, and pedagogical manuals are indexed if they are of scholarly interest.
Royal Purple Index
The Royal Purple has been the official student newspaper of the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater since 1901. This online index is searchable by title/subject/issue and author/photographer. Issues of the Royal Purple are available in print and microform in Andersen Library. Check the library catalog for locations.
A small authoritative collection of SAGE's encyclopedias online accessed through SAGE eReference. SAGE eReference supports simple searches for any word or phrase in the encyclopedia as well as Fielded Boolean searches.
Sage Premier Journals Online
SAGE Premier provides electronic access to 408 peer-reviewed, full-text journals Business, Humanities, Social Sciences, and Science, Technology and Medicine. (94,000+ articles).
Salem Press is a database that includes the complete content of printed reference sets. These sets include award-winning content in History, Literature, Science, and Careers.
Access to the full text of Science from 1997 to present.
Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science: 1987- )
Multidisciplinary database with searchable author abstracts covering the journal literature of the sciences. It indexes more than 5700 major journals across 164 scientific disciplines. All cited references captured.
ScienceDirect indexes thousands of peer-reviewed journals and book series from Elsevier in the areas of physical sciences and engineering, life and health sciences, social sciences and humanities.
Science Reference Center
Science Reference Center is a comprehensive research database that provides full text access to nearly 640 science encyclopedias, reference books,periodicals and other science-oriented content. Topics covered include: biology, chemistry, earth & space science, physics, science & society, science as inquiry, scientists, technology and wildlife.
Scottish Women Poets of the Romantic Period
Scottish Women Poets of the Romantic Period (SWRP) contains 60 volumes of Romantic Poetry, extensive contemporary critical reviews, as well as material specially written for this database by leading scholars.
Sears List of Subject Headings (EBSCOhost)
Sears List of Subject Headings is a thesaurus-like database delivering a core list of headings, together with patterns and examples to guide in the creation of further headings.
Senior High Core Collection (EBSCOhost)
Senior High Core Collection is a selective list of books recommended for young people in grades 9 through 12. It contains review sources and other professional aids for librarians and school media specialists.
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Burney Collection
The newspapers and news pamphlets gathered by the Reverend Charles Burney (1757 - 1817) represent the largest single collection of 17th and 18th century English news media. The 700 or so bound volumes of newspapers and news pamphlets were published mostly in London, however there are also some English provincial, Irish and Scottish papers, and a few examples from the American colonies, Europe and India. The 17th and 18th Century Burney Collection can also be searched using Artemis Primary Sources.
Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science: 1987- )
Multidisciplinary database with searchable author abstracts covering the journal literature of the social sciences. It indexes more than 1725 journals spanning 50 disciplines as well as covering individually selected, relevant items from over 3300 of the world's leading scientific and technical journals.
Social Services Abstracts (Proquest)
Provides bibliographic coverage of current research focused on social work, human services and related areas, including social welfare, social policy and community development.
Social Work Abstracts (EBSCOhost: 1977- )
Restricted to 8 users at a time
The Social Work Abstracts database, produced by the National Association of Social Workers, Inc., contains more than 35,000 records, spanning 1977 to the present, from social work and other related journals on topics such as homelessness, AIDS, child and family welfare, aging, substance abuse, legislation, community organization, and more.
Social Worker Finder
This web site provides a listing of clinical social workers who have met national standards for education and experience established by the NASW Competence Certification Commission on recommendation of the Committee on Clinical Social Work. It is an important resource for identifying social workers who are qualified providers of mental health services. Like its predecessors, this edition aims to advance sound professional practice standards by providing a uniform method to identify qualified clinical social work practitioners.
SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCOhost)
SocINDEX with Full Text features more than 2,066,400 records with subject headings and abstracts for more than 1,200 core coverage journals dating as far back as 1895. It contains full text for 777 journals dating back to 1908 and full text for more than 820 books and monographs and 13,947 conference papers.
Sociological Abstracts (Proquest)
Contains records from 3,000 journals covering sociology, social work, and other social sciences.
Soundzabound is a royalty free music library which offers a variety of music, audio themes and sound effects for grades K - 12 and universities.From BadgerLink.
SPORTDiscus with Full Text (EBSCOhost)
Restricted to 4 users at a time
Provides full text for more than 490 journals indexed in SPORTDiscus with coverage back to 1985.
SRDS Media Solutions
The SRDS database of media rates and information is the largest and most comprehensive in the world—cataloging more than 100,000 U.S. and international media properties delivering accurate, up-to-date media information -including detailed ad rates, dates and contact data for Direct Marketing, Business Publication, Consumer Magazine, Local Market Audience Analyst (formerly Lifestyle Market Analyst), Newspaper Advertising, Radio and TV and Cable Advertising.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, is a dynamic reference work where each entry is maintained and kept up to date by an expert or group of experts in the field. All entries and updates are refereed by the members of a distinguished Editorial Board before they are made public. The Abridged Table of Contents lists entries that are assigned and/or published. The Unabridged Table of Contents also lists entries which are currently unassigned but nevertheless projected.
State of Wisconsin Collection (UW Digital Collections)
The collection includes published material as well as archival materials. The materials were digitized from a variety of formats including books, manuscripts, sound recordings, photographs, maps and other resources deemed important to the study and teaching of the State of Wisconsin.
Statista.com offers data on over 80,000 topics from over 18,000 sources. Categorized into 21 market sectors it provides users with direct access to quantitative data on media,business, finance, politics and a variety of other areas of interest or markets.
Statistical Abstract of the United States
This database is a summary of statistics on the social, cultural, political, and economic organization of the United States. It includes a selection of data from many sources including the Census Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and other Federal agencies and private organizations. The U.S. Census Bureau discontinued the government-issued Statistical Abstract of the United States with the 2012 edition (issued in 2011). For newer data, please consult the annual privately-published ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the United States (latest edition in print format at the Reference Desk).
TeachingBooks offers original, in-studio movies of authors and illustrators, audio excerpts of professional book readings, guides thousands of titles and a wealth of multimedia resources on children's and young adult literature. From Badgerlink.
Search 155,000 companies, 60,000 product and service classification headings and 124,000 brand names. Business information organized by Products and Services, Company Profiles, Brand Names and a Catalog Index. Formerly Thomas Register.
Times Digital Archive
First published in 1785, The Times of London is widely considered to be the world's 'newspaper of record'. The Times Digital Archive allows users to search over 200 years of this invaluable historical source. The Times Digital Archives can also be searched using Artemis Primary Sources.
Twentieth Century Advice Literature: North American Guides on Race, Gender, Sex and the Family
The twentieth century was a time of rapid and drastic change in values and behaviors held and practiced in American life. The goal of Twentieth Century Advice Literature: North American Guides on Race, Gender, Sex, and the Family is to provide researchers and students with a highly visual and fully searchable archive illustrating how Americans grappled with these changes, and how their day-to-day life, attitudes, mores, and behaviors changed over time. To that end, the collection offers 150,000 pages of handbooks, manuals, textbooks, etiquette guides, self-help books, instructional pamphlets, and how-to books describing American attitudes towards family dynamics, gender roles, sexual relationships, and race relations. This content is often heavily illustrated, and the database presents it visually, conveying the feeling of the time and allowing users to see and read the material just as its original audience did.
Comprehensive and authoritative information on 250,000 serials published worldwide. Provides purchasing and contact information on regularly published and irregularly issued serials, journals and magazines.
UN Comtrade Database
The United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database contains detailed imports and exports statistics reported by statistical authorities of close to 200 countries or areas. It concerns annual trade data from 1962 to the most recent year.
Compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division, this free resource contains over 60 million data points and covers a wide range of themes including Agriculture, Crime, Education, Employment, Energy, Environment, Health, HIV/AIDS, Human Development, Indusry, Information and Communication Technology, National Accounts, Population, Refugees, Tourism, Trade, as well as the Millennium Development Goals indicators.
University of Wisconsin Digital Collections
The University of Wisconsin Digital Collections (UWDC) was created in the summer of 2001. The Council of Wisconsin libraries and UW System's Office of Learning & Information Technology established the UWDC to provide quality digital resources from its academic libraries to UW faculty, staff and students, citizens of the state, and scholars at large.
USA Trade Online (Librarian Mediated)
In Library Only
Restricted to 2 users at a time
This requires an id and password to log on, please inquire at Reference Desk. USA Trade Online is a service of STAT-USA and the Foreign Trade Division of the U.S. Census Bureau. It provides monthly information on U.S. imports and exports on more than 18,000 commodities
Value Line Investment Survey
An independent investment information resource, Value Line Investment Survey provides overall views on the economy and stock market as well as descriptive information and performance projections for 1,700 stocks.
Walworth County (Wis) Probate Index
Search index for names in the Walworth County (Wis) probate cases, 1848-1902.
Web of Science (Institute for Scientific Information: 1987- )
Multidisciplinary databases of bibliographic information indexed so that you can search for specific articles by subject, author, journal, and/or author address. The information stored about each article includes the article's cited reference list (bibliography), you can also search the databases for articles that cite a known author or work.
WestlawNext is an online legal research tool designed and built especially for undergraduates and other non-law students. It is an abridged version and allows retrieval of cases and legal documents from both federal and state sources.
Who's Who - Web Edition (Marquis)
Restricted to 1 user at a time
A searchable database featuring over 1 million of the most accomplished individuals from all fields of endeavor including: government, business, science and technology, the arts, entertainment and sports. The database may be searched by name, gender, occupation, geography, hobbies and interests, religion and offers comprehensive biographical coverage.
Wiley Online Library
Fulltext access to multidisciplinary journal articles via the Wiley Online Library interface.
Statewide bibliographic database for Wisconsin. It contains 5.6 million bibliographic records with local holdings statements for 1125 libraries of all types throughout Wisconsin.
Wisconsin Heritage Online (WHO)
The Wisconsin Heritage Online is an expanding digital collection, featuring documentary sources and material culture from Wisconsin libraries, archives, and museums. The collections in this exhibition project are contributed by cultural heritage organizations throughout Wisconsin
Wisconsin Newspapers Digital Research Site
Wisconsin Newspapers Digital Research Site is a service of the Wisconsin Newspaper Association and provides access to the daily and weekly newspapers in Wisconsin, starting in 2005 to the present, with an embargo delay of 60 days. Note: At present it is not available through IP address authentication (using Net-ID from Off Campus). Off Campus access is possible by entry of a Wisconsin public library card number. From BadgerLink.
Wisconsin Pioneer Experience (UW Digital Collections)
The Wisconsin Pioneer Experience is a digital collection of diaries, letters, reminiscences, speeches and other writings of people who settled and built Wisconsin during the 19th century. The project has been made available through the partnership of the Council of University of Wisconsin Libraries (CUWL) and the Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS).
Women and Social Movements in the United States: 1600 to 2000
Women and Social Movements in the United States brings together books, images, documents, scholarly essays, commentaries, and bibliographies, documenting the multiplicity of women's reform activities. The resource, which examines perspectives on women's social movements from Colonial times to the present, is updated on a quarterly basis by adding new document projects, book and website reviews, related teaching tools, and more documents.
Women's Studies International (EBSCOhost: 1972- )
Women's Resources International is a combination of nine contributing databases covering women's studies, women's issues, and gender-focused scholarship from throughout the world. Databases include: Women's Studies Abstracts (1984-); New Books on Women & Feminism (1987-); Women of Color and Southern Women 1975-1988, and annual supplements (1989-); and other databases and print publications.
World Bank Data
Access all available World Bank datasets, including World Development Indicators and Global Financial Development.
World Shakespeare Bibliography Online
The World Shakespeare Bibliography Online consists of the most comprehensive record of Shakespeare-related scholarship and theatrical productions published or produced worldwide between 1960 and 2012.
This link uses the new interface to over 40 million bibliographic records of material cataloged by OCLC member libraries. Includes manuscripts written as early as the 12th century, books, government documents, video recordings, and sound recordings. Until late 2016, the old interface is available at WorldCat (FirstSearch)
WorldCat.org is a permanent Web page dedicated solely to searching WorldCat libraries. Information seekers can regionally search the WorldCat database from this site by entering location information such as postal code, state, province or country.